Publications

Stradwin has been developed over a number of years and the various algorithms incorporated into the software have been developed over many more. Hence there is no single publication which describes all the available features. If you use Stradwin as part of your research, please cite the web address for the software, which is

http://mi.eng.cam.ac.uk/~rwp/stradwin
You should also cite a paper appropriate to the features you are using. Possible papers are listed below, grouped according to use: several of these papers refer to Stradx, which was a forerunner of Stradwin.

Acquiring freehand (tracked) 3D ultrasound

[1] is a general paper which describes the algorithms used to generate re-slice displays from the original non-parallel freehand ultrasound data (though it also describes some additional concepts not included in Stradwin). [2] describes the process of acquiring accurate matched image and sensor data for tracked 3D ultrasound (temporal calibration), and the attainable precision using Stradwin. [3] details the process of probe pressure correction and [4] of using several ultrasound sweeps for scanning larger organs. [5] and [6] describe Stradwin's two methods for spatial calibration.

  1. A. Gee, R. Prager, G. Treece, C. Cash and L. Berman. Processing and visualising three-dimensional ultrasound data. British Journal of Radiology. Vol. 77, No. S2, pp. S186-S193, December 2004.

  2. G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager, C. J. C. Cash and L. Berman. High definition freehand 3D ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 529-546, April 2003.

  3. G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. Correction of probe pressure artifacts in freehand 3D ultrasound. Medical Image Analysis. Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 199-214, October 2002.

  4. G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. 3D ultrasound measurement of large organ volume. Medical Image Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 41-54, March 2001.

  5. R. W. Prager, R. N. Rohling, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. Rapid calibration for 3-D freehand ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 855-869, July 1998.

  6. P.-W. Hsu, G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, N. E. Houghton and A. H. Gee. Comparison of freehand 3-D ultrasound calibration techniques using a stylus. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 1610-1621, October 2008.

Volume measurement and creating 3D surface models

[1] describes the technique for interpolating between cross-sections drawn on the original non-parallel ultrasound images. [2] describes the algorithm for turning these cross-sections into a 3D triangle-based model. [3] describes the algorithm used to calculate the volume of segmented objects in Stradwin.

  1. G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. Surface interpolation from sparse cross-sections using region correspondence. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. Vol. 19, No. 11, pp. 1106-1114, November 2000.

  2. G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager and A. H. Gee. Regularised marching tetrahedra: improved iso-surface extraction. Computers and Graphics. Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 583-598, 1999.

  3. G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. Fast Surface and Volume Estimation from Non-parallel Cross-sections for Freehand 3-D Ultrasound. Medical Image Analysis. Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 141-173, 1999.

Ultrasound elastography or strain imaging

[1] is an overview of the general processing and visualisation strategy used to display strain images in Stradwin, which is also the subject of a patent application [2]. [3] describes the 'regularise' filter. [4] describes the default (WPS) algorithm for estimating relative displacement, also the subject of a patent application [5]. [6] describes the displacement correction (AMC) used to increase displacement accuracy. [7] describes the creation of 3D strain data by use of a mechanical 3D probe, and [8] the creation of 3D strain data by a tracked 2D probe. [9] compares these two approaches to 3D strain imaging. [10] describes initial clinical experience with the system, while [11] details Stradwin's normalization process for axial shear strain imaging. [12] reviews Stradwin's elastography algorithms in the wider context of real-time quasistatic strain imaging.

  1. J. E. Lindop, G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. An intelligent interface for freehand strain imaging. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1117-1128, July 2008.

  2. J. E. Lindop and G. M. Treece. Data quality in strain imaging display. WO 2008/132504, published 6th November 2008 (App. Num. PCT/GB2008/050293), filed 24th April 2008. GB (App. Num. GB0708358.7), filed 1st May 2007.

  3. G. M. Treece, J. E. Lindop, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. Uniform precision ultrasound strain imaging. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2420-2436, November 2009.

  4. J. E. Lindop, G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. Phase-based ultrasonic deformation estimation. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 94-111, January 2008.

  5. J. E. Lindop and G. M. Treece. Weighted phase separation based ultrasonic deformation estimation. WO 2007/135450, published 29th November 2007 (App. Num. PCT/GB2007/050163), filed 28th March 2007. GB2438461 (App. Num. GB0610172.9), filed 23rd May 2006.

  6. J. E. Lindop, G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. Estimation of displacement location for enhanced strain imaging.. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 1751-1771, September 2007.

  7. G. M. Treece, J. E. Lindop, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. Freehand ultrasound elastography with a 3D probe. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 463-474, March 2008.

  8. J. E. Lindop, G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. 3D elastography using freehand ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 529-545, April 2006.

  9. R. J. Housden, A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager and G. M. Treece. 3D ultrasonic strain imaging using freehand scanning and a mechanically-swept probe. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 501-506, February 2010.

  10. L. Chen, S. J. Freeman, A. H. Gee, R. J. Housden, R. W. Prager, R. Sinnatamby and G. M. Treece. Initial clinical experience of an ultrasonic strain imaging system with novel noise-masking capability. British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 83, No. 992, pp. 702-706, August 2010.

  11. L. Chen, R. J. Housden, G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee and R. W. Prager. A normalization method for axial-shear strain elastography. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. 57, No. 12, pp. 2833-2838, December 2010.

  12. G. M. Treece, J. E. Lindop, L. Chen, R. J. Housden, R. W. Prager and A. H. Gee. Real-time quasi-static ultrasound elastography. Interface Focus, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 540-552, August 2011.

Bone cortical thickness estimation from CT data

Stradwin implements the cortical thickness mapping technique described in [1] and [2], which is also the subject of a patent application [3]. [4] and [5] describe our first clinical applications of the technique.
  1. G. M. Treece, A. H. Gee, P. M. Mayhew and K. E. S. Poole. High resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data. Medical Image Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 276-290, June 2010.

  2. G. M. Treece, K. E. S. Poole and A. H. Gee. Imaging the femoral cortex: thickness, density and mass from clinical CT. Medical Image Analysis, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 952-965, July 2012.

  3. G. M. Treece and K. E. S. Poole. Image data processing systems. GB (App. Num. GB0917524.1), filed 7th October 2009.

  4. K. E. S. Poole, G. M. Treece, G. R. Ridgway, P. M. Mayhew, J. Borggrefe and A. H. Gee. Targeted regeneration of bone in the osteoporotic human femur. PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 1, e16190, January 2011.

  5. K. E. S. Poole, G. M. Treece, P. M. Mayhew, J. Vaculik, P. Dungl, M. Horak, J. Stepan and A. H. Gee.Cortical thickness mapping to identify focal osteoporosis in patients with hip fracture. PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 6, e38466, June 2012.