Technical Information


A broad overview of many of Stradx's facilities can be found in the following tutorial.

A.H. Gee and R.W. Prager. Sequential 3D diagnostic ultrasound using the Stradx system. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI'99, Cambridge, UK, September 1999. Revised and extended, June 2001.

Download the tutorial now (12.7 MBytes compressed PostScript, 37 pages).


The following technical report describes Stradx's acquisition, temporal calibration, reslicing and panoramic imaging facilities.

R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee and L. Berman. Stradx: real-time acquisition and visualisation of freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 319, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, April 1998.

Download the technical report now (3.7 MBytes compressed PostScript, 16 pages).

More recent improvements to the acquisition and calibration facilities are described in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager, C.J.C. Cash and L.H. Berman. High resolution freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 438, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, August 2002.

Download the technical report now (2.4 MBytes compressed PostScript, 37 pages).


Details of Stradx's two spatial calibration techniques can be found in the following technical reports.

R.W. Prager, R.N. Rohling, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. Automatic calibration for 3-D free-hand ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 303, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, September 1997.

Download the technical report now (1.7 MBytes compressed PostScript, 28 pages).

A.H. Gee, N.E. Houghton, G.M. Treece and R.W. Prager. 3D ultrasound probe calibration without a position sensor. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 488, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, September 2004.

Download the technical report now (3.5 MBytes PDF, 21 pages).


Technical details of Stradx's state-of-the-art volume measurement and surface interpolation facilities can be found in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. Fast surface and volume estimation from non-parallel cross-sections, for freehand 3-D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 326, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, July 1998.

Download the technical report now (3.0 MBytes compressed PostScript, 72 pages).

Improvements to the surface interpolation algorithm, allowing proper triangulation of the surface, are described in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager and A.H. Gee. Regularised marching tetrahedra: improved iso-surface extraction. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 333, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, September 1998.

Download the technical report now (4.5 MBytes compressed PostScript, 27 pages).

Recent improvements to the surface interpolation algorithm, allowing more faithful reconstruction of complex surfaces, are described in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. Surface interpolation from sparse cross-sections using region correspondence. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 342, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, March 1999.

Download the technical report now (2.8 MBytes compressed PostScript, 26 pages).

Details of Stradx's unique facilities for the segmentation and volume measurement of large structures can be found in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. 3D ultrasound examination of large organs. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 367, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, December 1999.

Download the technical report now (3.0 MBytes compressed PostScript, 29 pages).


Technical details of Stradx's non-planar reslice facility (`Manifold' window) can be found in the following technical report.

A.H. Gee, R.W. Prager and L. Berman. Non-planar reslicing for freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 340, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, January 1999.

Download the technical report now (1.6 MBytes compressed PostScript, 11 pages).


Technical details of Stradx's volume rendering facilities (available in the `Reslice' and `Manifold' windows) can be found in the following technical report.

A.H. Gee, R.W. Prager, G.M. Treece and L. Berman. Narrow-band volume rendering for freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 392, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, September 2000.

Download the technical report now (2.9 MBytes compressed PostScript, 20 pages).


Technical details of Stradx's body-centered visualisation facility can be found in the following technical report.

P.M. Tuomola, A.H. Gee, R.W. Prager and L. Berman. Body-centered visualisation for freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 362, Cambridge University Engineering Department, October 1999.

Download the technical report now (1.8 MBytes compressed PostScript, 22 pages).


Technical details of Stradx's advanced image registration techniques (to compensate for the effects of varying probe pressure and correct small errors in the position sensor readings) can be found in the following technical report.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. Correction of probe pressure artifacts in freehand 3D ultrasound - initial results. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 411, Cambridge University Engineering Department, April 2001.

Download the technical report now (3.6 MBytes compressed PostScript, 14 pages).

Further experimental results, and an extension of the registration technique to cope with convex probes, can be found in the following technical reports.

G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee and L. Berman. Correction of probe pressure artifacts in freehand 3D ultrasound - further results and convex probes. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 421, Cambridge University Engineering Department, October 2001.

Download the technical report now (22 MBytes compressed PostScript, 27 pages).

G.M. Treece, A.H. Gee and R.W. Prager. RF and amplitude-based probe pressure correction for freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 491, Cambridge University Engineering Department, August 2004.

Download the technical report now (2.2 MBytes PDF, 20 pages).

An extension to register multiple sweeps can be found in the following technical report.

A.H. Gee, G.M. Treece, R.W. Prager, C.J.C. Cash and L. Berman. Rapid Registration for Wide Field-of-View Freehand 3D Ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 447, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, January 2003.

Download the technical report now (4.4 MBytes PDF, 21 pages).


Details of the advanced technology behind Stradx's position-sensor-less freehand acquisition facilities can be found in the following technical reports.

R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee, G.M. Treece, C.J.C. Cash and L.H. Berman. Using image-based regression to acquire freehand 3D ultrasound. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 436, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, June 2002.

Download the technical report now (353KBytes PDF, 17 pages).

R.W. Prager, A.H. Gee, G.M. Treece and L. Berman. Decompression and speckle detection for ultrasound images using a homodyned k-distribution. Technical report CUED/F-INFENG/TR 397, Cambridge University Department of Engineering, November 2000.

Download the technical report now (1.1MBytes compressed PostScript, 15 pages).